Glomerular Disease: What It Is, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment (2023)


Glomerular Disease: What It Is, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment (1)

What is glomerular disease?

Glomerular disease is the result of diseases that affect specific parts of the kidney, called the glomeruli. The glomerulus is a network of tiny blood vessels, the "cleaning unit" of the kidney. They filter waste and remove excess fluid from your blood. When the glomeruli are damaged and cannot function properly, it is called glomerular disease.

Many diseases and conditions can damage the glomeruli. Two broad terms used to describe the various forms of glomerular injury are:

  • Glomerulonephritis, inflammation (swelling) of the glomeruli.
  • Glomerulosclerosis, the scarring/hardening of the glomeruli.

Glomerular disease can damage your kidneys, leading to kidney failure in some cases.

How do glomeruli work in your kidneys?

Your kidneys—two bean-shaped organs located on the left and right sides of your spine below your ribcage—are your body's main filters.

Blood enters the kidneys through the arteries. Once in the kidney, the arteries branch and blood flows into a network of tiny ring-shaped blood vessels called glomeruli. Each glomerulus is attached to the opening of a small fluid-collecting tube called a tubule.Each glomerular-tubular unit is called a nephron. There are approximately 1 million nephrons in each kidney.

Properly functioning glomeruli work by keeping blood cells and proteins circulating in the blood, which your body needs. Meanwhile, the glomeruli filter out waste and excess water, sending the fluid into the tubules (which become pee). Urine (pee) leaves the kidneys through larger tubes called ureters, which carry urine to the bladder.

(Video) Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

How does glomerular disease affect kidney function?

Glomerular disease damages the glomeruli, affecting their ability to function properly. Instead of circulating proteins and red blood cells in the blood, damaged glomeruli leak some of these products into your urine. One job of proteins in the blood, such as albumin, is to move excess fluid from the body into the blood so it can be filtered by the kidneys and excreted from the body as urine. Not having enough protein in the blood can cause excess fluid to build up in the body, causing swelling in areas such as the face, hands, feet, abdomen, and ankles.

Damaged glomeruli are also unable to filter out waste, which begins to build up in your blood.

symptoms and causes

What are the causes of glomerular disease?

Causes of glomerular disease include:

  • Drugs or chemicals that are infectious or harmful to the kidneys.
  • A disease that affects the whole body, including the kidneys.
  • A disorder that causes swelling or scarring of the nephrons or glomeruli.
  • for an unknown reason.

What are the signs and symptoms of glomerular disease?

Signs of glomerular disease include one or more of the following:

  • Foamy urine (sign of protein in the urine [proteinuria]).
  • Pink or light brown urine (a sign of blood in the urine [hematuria]).
  • Swelling in the face/around the eyes (especially in the morning), in the hands, feet, or ankles (especially at the end of the day). This swelling is callededema.
  • high blood pressure (hypertension).

Diagnosis and Testing

How is glomerular disease diagnosed?

After taking a thorough physical and medical history, your healthcare provider will order several tests, including:

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  • A urine test (urinalysis) to check for high protein levels, red and white blood cell levels (indicating infection or inflammation).
  • Blood tests to check for low protein levels, creatinine (kidney function), and blood urea nitrogen (waste waste). A calculation called the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is done to see if your kidneys are filtering properly.

If these lab tests show kidney damage, your healthcare provider may order:

  • Additional blood tests are done for underlying causes such as infection or autoimmune disease.
  • Imaging tests, including ultrasound, to see if the kidneys are abnormal in shape or size.
  • A kidney biopsy involves using a needle to remove a small piece of tissue so it can be viewed under a microscope.

Management and Treatment

What diseases and conditions cause glomerular disease, and how is it treated?

Many diseases can cause glomerular disease. The goal of treatment is to treat the underlying cause (if it can be identified) to protect your kidneys from further damage. Below are some general disease categories that can cause glomerular disease, along with examples and treatments for each disease.

autoimmune disease

These are diseases in which your body's immune system attacks itself. These diseases may affect your whole body, or they may only attack specific organs or parts of your body. Autoimmune diseases that affect the kidneys include:

  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)(Also known simply as lupus): This autoimmune disease affects many parts of the body. In the kidneys, it causes lupus nephritis, which is inflammation of the glomeruli. Inflammation can lead to scarring that prevents the kidneys from functioning properly. Anti-inflammatory treatments include immunosuppressive drugs such as mycophenolate mofetil or cyclophosphamide in combination with the corticosteroid prednisolone.
  • Goodpasture Syndrome:This autoimmune disease attacks the kidneys and lungs. In the kidneys, it causes glomerulonephritis, an inflammation of the glomeruli that can lead to permanent kidney damage. Treatment includes immunosuppressant drugs and plasmapheresis (a process of removing antibodies that attack your own body).
  • IgA nephropathy:With this autoimmune disease, a specific part of the immune system called the antibody immunoglobulin A (IgA) forms deposits in the glomeruli. These deposits can cause inflammation. Treatment consists of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers.

hereditary nephritis

  • Alport Syndrome:This is a genetic disorder that causes chronic glomerular disease and hearing or visual impairment. It affects both men and women. Men are more likely to develop chronic kidney disease, which can be diagnosed in their twenties; total kidney failure usually occurs by age 40. Treatment includes medicines to regulate blood pressure.

infection-associated glomerular disease

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Glomerular disease sometimes develops rapidly after infection elsewhere in the body.

  • After acute infectionglomerulus nephritis(pig):This glomerular disease occurs after an episode of strep throat or (rarely) a skin infection impetigo. The immune system overproduces antibodies to fight the infection, and these antibodies eventually deposit in the glomeruli and cause damage. Usually no treatment is needed. In rare cases, kidney dialysis or transplantation is required.
  • bacteriaEndocarditis:This is an infection of the tissues inside the heart. The researchers are not sure whether the lesions that formed in the kidneys were caused by the immune response to the infection or by other disease mechanisms. Treatment is antibiotics.
  • Virus:viral infections, such asHepatitis B,Hepatitis Candhuman immunodeficiency virusable cause glomerular disease. Treatment is specific to the disease.


  • Glomerulosclerosis:This condition is scarring (sclerosis) of the glomeruli. Lupus and diabetes are two examples of diseases that can cause glomerulosclerosis.
  • Diabetes-related kidney disease:This condition is the leading cause of glomerular disease and total renal failure in the United States. Diabetes-related kidney disease damages the kidneys and raises blood sugar levels. Glucose accelerates blood flow to the kidneys, straining the glomerulus' filtering function and raising blood pressure. Common treatments include medicines to regulate blood pressure (especially ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers), exercise, and a healthy diet.
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS):This condition involves scarring of (usually) part of the glomerulus. FSGS may be the result of systemic disease or of unknown cause. Treatment aims to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

other glomerular diseases

  • Membranous nephropathy:This condition, also known as membranous glomerulopathy, is the second most common cause of kidney disease in adults in the United States, after diabetes-related nephropathy. It is associated with several target antigens/antibodies. This condition attacks the membrane layer of the glomerulus. Some people recover without treatment. Sometimes an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker or a calcineurin inhibitor is tried.
  • Minimal Disease (MCD):This is a kidney disease in which a kidney biopsy shows little or no structural changes in the glomeruli or surrounding tissue. Tiny droplets of lipid (fatty substance) may be present, but the kidney is not scarred. MCD can occur at any age, but is most common in childhood. Treatment consists of a low-salt diet, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and steroids, which usually relieve symptoms.

Can glomerular disease cause kidney failure?

If your kidneys can't remove waste from your blood, the waste builds up. This buildup can damage your kidneys and cause loss of function. Loss of function can be acute (sudden) or slow and persistent (chronic). Depending on the form of glomerular disease, kidney function may be lost over days or weeks, or gradually over decades.

  • Acute Renal Failure (ARF):This is a rapid loss of kidney function. ARF can be life-threatening and may require urgent careDialysisreplace kidney function. In some people, kidney function returns after the cause of kidney failure is treated. No permanent damage. However, some people who recover from ARF go on to develop chronic kidney disease.
  • Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD):This is a slow, gradual loss of kidney function. You may not have symptoms for many years. Some diseases that cause CKD can be slowed down, but CKD cannot be cured. Once a kidney is scarred, it cannot be repaired. CKD can lead to complete kidney failure.
  • Total renal failure:Total renal failure, also known as end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is the permanent loss of kidney function. If you have complete kidney failure, you need dialysis (hemodialysisorperitoneal dialysis) orKidney transplantsurvive.


Can glomerular disease be prevented?

You can make lifestyle changes to stay healthy and reduce your risk of diseases that affect your kidneys. These changes include:

  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Keep your salt intake low; don't add extra salt to your food.
  • Manage your blood pressure properly. Aim for 120/80 mmHg.
  • manage your blood sugar, if you havediabetes.Take all prescribed medications and follow all management goals discussed with your healthcare provider.
  • stop smoking.

It may not be possible to prevent all causes of glomerular disease. However, see your healthcare provider as soon as you notice signs of glomerular disease. It is important to discover a treatable cause and start treatment as soon as possible. Treatment may slow kidney damage and/or prevent it from getting worse.

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What should I expect if I have glomerular disease?

Early diagnosis and early treatment always have the best chance for a good outcome. The goal of treatment is to prevent or slow the progression of kidney damage. If the damage does worsen and lead to kidney failure, dialysis or a kidney transplant are the only options.

live with

What is kidney disease?

Kidney disease, also known as nephrotic syndrome, is a collection of symptoms. Large amounts of protein in the blood can end up in the urine, causing fluid to build up in the body. Symptoms include:

  • Swelling (edema), especially around the eyes, feet, and hands.
  • hypertension.
  • high cholesterol levels.
  • Low protein levels in the blood.
  • High levels of protein in the urine.

The goal of treatment is to treat the underlying cause (if known). Treatment includes:

  • Take an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker to regulate blood pressure and stop the loss of protein into the urine.
  • Reduce salt in your diet.
  • Diuretics are given to reduce fluid buildup in the body.
  • Taking corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs.
  • Take medicines to lower your cholesterol levels.
  • Plasma exchange removes antibodies that attack your own body (if you have an autoimmune disease).

If the underlying cause of kidney disease is kidney disease, there is no cure. The glomeruli in the kidneys do not function properly, leading to a buildup of waste and water in the blood. Kidney failure develops. As the failure worsens, treatment is dialysis or a kidney transplant.

When should I see a doctor?

Consult your healthcare provider if you have signs or symptoms of glomerular disease or if you have any changes in your medical condition.

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Note from the Cleveland Clinic

Many different diseases and conditions can damage the glomeruli in the kidneys. It's important to know your body so you can notice changes and see your healthcare provider as soon as possible.


What are 3 symptoms of glomerular disease? ›

Glomerulonephritis signs and symptoms may include:
  • Pink or cola-colored urine from red blood cells in your urine (hematuria)
  • Foamy or bubbly urine due to excess protein in the urine (proteinuria)
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Fluid retention (edema) with swelling evident in your face, hands, feet and abdomen.
Feb 26, 2022

What is the cause of glomerular disease? ›

What causes glomerular disease? A number of different diseases can result in glomerular disease. It may be the direct result of an infection or a drug toxic to the kidneys, or it may result from a disease that affects the entire body, like diabetes or lupus.

What are the treatment options for glomerular disease? ›

Common treatments include drugs to regulate blood pressure (especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers), exercise and healthy diet. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS): This condition involves scarring in one part of the glomerulus (usually).

What is a glomerular disease? ›

GLOMERULAR DISEASE OVERVIEW. Glomerular disease reduces the kidneys' ability to maintain a balance of certain substances in bloodstream. Normally, the kidneys filter toxins out of the bloodstream and excrete them in the urine but keep red blood cells and protein in the bloodstream.

What drugs cause glomerular disease? ›

Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

NSAIDs are associated with many nephrotoxic insults including glomerular disease, acute or chronic interstitial nephritis, acute tubular necrosis and papillary necrosis (Sekhon et al. 2005). All NSAID classes, both oral and topical, have been linked to nephrotoxicity.

How do you diagnose glomerular disease? ›

A kidney biopsy is often required to diagnose the underlying pathology in patients with suspected glomerular disease, particularly in those with nephrotic syndrome or suspected glomerulonephritis. Rarely, a biopsy cannot be performed or is not needed to secure a diagnosis.

What is the most common glomerular disease? ›

Diabetic kidney disease, or diabetic nephropathy, is the most common glomerular disease and is the most common cause of needing dialysis or kidney transplantation.

How can I improve my glomerular? ›

Can I Improve My GFR?
  1. Avoid processed foods, which are high in salt.
  2. Follow a low-salt diet. Talk to your doctor about the DASH diet.
  3. Eat plenty of fruits and veggies.
  4. Limit protein. ...
  5. Exercise routinely.
  6. Cut back on or quit smoking.
  7. Maintain a healthy weight.

Is glomerular disease a kidney disease? ›

Glomerulonephritis is also called glomerular disease. It is a type of kidney disease caused by damage to your glomeruli due to overactivation of your immune system. This damage means the glomeruli cannot do their job to remove waste and fluid like they should.

Can glomeruli be repaired? ›

Background: For many years, the glomerulus was considered incapable of regeneration. However, experimental and clinical evidence challenged this concept and showed that glomerular injury and even glomerulosclerosis can undergo regression under certain circumstances.

How do I get my GFR back to normal? ›

Avoid processed foods and choose fresh fruits and vegetables instead. Follow a low-salt diet. Salt should be limited especially if you have high blood pressure, protein in your urine, or swelling, or difficulty breathing. Eating less than 2000 mg a day of sodium is recommended.

What foods should be avoided with glomerulonephritis? ›

Processed cheese High-sodium meats (jambon, bacon, hot dogs...) packaged foods Pickled vegetables (pickles, pickles, etc.) Salted chips, popcorn, and nuts Salted breads Note, certain spices and flavorings also contain salt. high.

When should you suspect glomerular disease? ›

A glomerular disease can be assumed to be present if the patient manifests glomerular hematuria, glomerular proteinuria, or both. Glomerular hematuria is the result of disruption of the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) to the extent that red cells are able to pass through the GFB.

What are the signs and symptoms of glomerulonephritis? ›

Symptoms of glomerulonephritis
  • rashes.
  • joint pain.
  • stomach pain.
  • high temperature.
  • shortness of breath.
  • yellowing of the whites of the eyes or the skin, although this may be less noticeable on brown or black skin (jaundice)
  • peeing a lot less than usual.
  • tiredness.

What is the most common cause of glomerulonephritis? ›

What causes acute glomerulonephritis? The acute disease may be caused by infections such as strep throat. It may also be caused by other illnesses, including lupus, Goodpasture's syndrome, Wegener's disease, and polyarteritis nodosa. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are important to prevent kidney failure.

What are the secondary causes of glomerular disease? ›

Several factors, such as infection, drug toxicity, diseases including diabetes or sickle cell disease, obesity, and even other kidney diseases can cause secondary FSGS . Controlling or treating the underlying cause often slows ongoing kidney damage and might lead to improved kidney function over time.

Is glomerular disease autoimmune? ›

Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a type of glomerular disease and is an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease is caused when your body's defense system turns against you and harms your body when it should be protecting you. Your defense system is known as your immune system which is “turned on” by glomerular disease.

What lab test for glomerular disease? ›

Urinalysis and other urine tests include:
  • Examination of the urine under a microscope.
  • Creatinine clearance.
  • Total protein.
  • Uric acid, urine.
  • Urine concentration test.
  • Urine creatinine.
  • Urine protein.
  • Urine RBC.

What happens to your body when you have glomerulonephritis? ›

Glomerulonephritis is inflammation and damage to the filtering part of the kidneys (glomerulus). It can come on quickly or over a longer period of time. Toxins, metabolic wastes and excess fluid are not properly filtered into the urine. Instead, they build up in the body causing swelling and fatigue.

Who is at risk for glomerulonephritis? ›

Infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB) and syphilis, can lead to glomerulonephritis. This is also true of bacterial endocarditis, an infection of the heart valves. Viral infections, such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C also increase the risk.

Can glomerulonephritis be seen on CT scan? ›

Imaging tests.

These tests may be an X-ray, an ultrasound exam or a CT scan.

What food is not good for kidney? ›

Keep these 5 foods out of your daily diet to keep your kidneys healthy:
  • Soda: Steer clear! ...
  • Processed deli meats: Scrap cold cuts like bologna and ham from your diet! ...
  • Butter: Skimp on the spread! ...
  • Mayonnaise: One tablespoon of mayonnaise contains a whopping 103 calories!

What color is urine when your kidneys are failing? ›

When your kidneys are failing, a high concentration and accumulation of substances lead to brown, red, or purple urine. Studies suggest the urine color is due to abnormal protein or sugar as well as high numbers of cellular casts and red and white blood cells.

What foods improve kidney function? ›

The Best Foods for Kidney Health
  • Dark leafy greens. Dark leafy green vegetables such as kale, spinach, chard, and collard greens are loaded with vitamins A and C, calcium, and many other important minerals. ...
  • Berries. ...
  • Cranberries. ...
  • Sweet potatoes. ...
  • Olive oil. ...
  • Fatty fish. ...
  • Cabbage.

Is diabetes a glomerular disease? ›

Your kidneys contain millions of tiny blood vessel clusters (glomeruli) that filter waste from your blood. Severe damage to these blood vessels can lead to diabetic nephropathy, decreased kidney function and kidney failure.

What is the progression of glomerular disease? ›

Progression of glomerular and tubular disease is clinically defined by a persistent decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that results in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may lead to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD).

How long does it take for kidneys to repair themselves? ›

After exposure to a damaging factor, a peak of proliferation in the kidney tissue was observed usually occurring on the 2nd day, whereas normal epithelial morphology is normally restored within 5–7 days after challenge [1]. Histological analysis of the kidney tissue distinguishes 4 stages of the regeneration process.

How long does glomerulonephritis last? ›

Most people who develop PSGN recover within a few weeks without any complications. While rare, long-term kidney damage, including kidney failure, can occur. These rare complications are more common in adults than children.

Can you recover from glomerulonephritis? ›

Children who develop acute glomerulonephritis after a bacterial infection often recover completely. But others—especially those with chronic glomerulonephritis caused by an autoimmune condition—may need ongoing treatment and support.

What is a normal GFR for a 70 year old? ›

Following the classical way, we can assert that normal GFR values are largely over 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in healthy subjects, at least before the age of 70 years. However, we know that GFR physiologically decreases with age, and in adults older than 70 years, values below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 could be considered normal.

What makes your GFR go down? ›

A decrease or decline in the GFR implies progression of underlying kidney disease or the occurrence of a superimposed insult to the kidneys. This is most commonly due to problems such as dehydration and volume loss.

Will drinking water increase my GFR? ›

Water ingestion can acutely affect GFR, although not necessarily in the direction one might expect. Using 12 young, healthy individuals as their own controls, Anastasio et al. found increased water intake actually decreases GFR.

What is the best drug for glomerulonephritis? ›

Furosemide (Lasix) Furosemide is the diuretic of choice. It increases excretion of water by interfering with the chloride-binding cotransport system, which, in turn, inhibits sodium and chloride reabsorption in the ascending loop of Henle and the distal renal tubule.

What is the best home remedy for glomerulonephritis? ›

Home remedies and treatments for kidney infections
  • Drink a lot of water. ...
  • Drink cranberry juice. ...
  • Avoid alcohol and coffee. ...
  • Take probiotics. ...
  • Get some vitamin C. ...
  • Try parsley juice. ...
  • Consume apples and apple juice. ...
  • Take an Epsom salt bath.

What is one of the earliest signs of kidney damage? ›

  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Fatigue and weakness.
  • Sleep problems.
  • Urinating more or less.
  • Decreased mental sharpness.
  • Muscle cramps.
Sep 3, 2021

How do doctors diagnose glomerulonephritis? ›

How is glomerulonephritis diagnosed? If your doctor suspects that you have glomerulonephritis, he or she will order tests that examine your urine to see if there is a high concentration of protein or inflammatory cells.

What are the red flags for glomerulonephritis? ›

Common symptoms of glomerulonephritis are: Blood in the urine (dark, rust-colored, or brown urine) Foamy urine (due to excess protein in the urine) Swelling (edema) of the face, eyes, ankles, feet, legs, or abdomen.

How do you fix glomerulonephritis? ›

Treatment Glomerulonephritis
  1. Dietary changes. In mild cases, a GP or dietitian will give you relevant advice about diet. ...
  2. Stopping smoking. ...
  3. Immunosuppressants. ...
  4. Treating high blood pressure. ...
  5. Treating high cholesterol. ...
  6. Plasma exchange. ...
  7. Treating chronic kidney disease or kidney failure. ...
  8. Vaccinations.

What is the new treatment for glomerulonephritis? ›

Eculizumab as a New Treatment for Severe Acute Post-infectious Glomerulonephritis: Two Case Reports. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021 Jul 26;8:663258.

What blood test confirms glomerulonephritis? ›

The antinuclear antibody test is useful for patients with acute glomerulonephritis and symptoms of underlying systemic illness, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and polyarteritis nodosa. Other tests include the following: Anti-DNA antibodies.

What virus causes glomerulonephritis? ›

Hepatitis C virus causes various forms of glomerulonephritis, including cryoglobulinemia-mediated glomerulonephritis. Infection with HIV is associated with a collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, a distinctive disease that affects mainly Africans and African Americans.

What is an early indicator of glomerular dysfunction? ›

One or more of the following can be the first sign of glomerular disease: Blood in the urine (hematuria): Glomerular disease can cause your glomeruli to leak blood into your urine. Your urine may look pink or light brown from blood.

What is the most common glomerular disease in adults? ›

Diabetic kidney disease, or diabetic nephropathy, is the most common glomerular disease and is the most common cause of needing dialysis or kidney transplantation.

How do you test for glomerular damage? ›

A blood test and a urine test are used to find kidney disease. Because you are at risk, you should get these tests regularly: GFR - A blood test measures how much blood your kidneys filter each minute, which is known as your glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

How do you feel when your GFR is low? ›

You're more tired, have less energy or are having trouble concentrating. A severe decrease in kidney function can lead to a buildup of toxins and impurities in the blood. This can cause people to feel tired, weak and can make it hard to concentrate.

What is the most sensitive indicator of glomerular function? ›

The best overall indicator of the glomerular function is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR is the rate in milliliters per minute at which substances in plasma are filtered through the glomerulus; in other words, the clearance of a substance from the blood.

What blood test will confirm glomerulonephritis? ›

The antinuclear antibody test is useful for patients with acute glomerulonephritis and symptoms of underlying systemic illness, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and polyarteritis nodosa. Other tests include the following: Anti-DNA antibodies. Triglyceride levels.

Does clear pee mean your kidneys are good? ›

If your urine is clear and you're not on a water pill or drinking a lot of water, it may signal an underlying kidney problem or possibly diabetes.

What are the first signs of kidney problems? ›

Symptoms can include:
  • weight loss and poor appetite.
  • swollen ankles, feet or hands – as a result of water retention (oedema)
  • shortness of breath.
  • tiredness.
  • blood in your pee (urine)
  • an increased need to pee – particularly at night.
  • difficulty sleeping (insomnia)
  • itchy skin.

What is the complication of glomerular disease? ›

Complications of glomerulonephritis

high blood pressure. high cholesterol. blood clots – including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or a pulmonary embolism. damage to other organs.


1. What are the Symptoms of Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure? | The Cooking Doc®
(The Cooking Doc)
2. Chronic kidney disease: Clinical Nursing Care
(Osmosis from Elsevier)
3. Signs and Causes of Kidney Failure
(Tufts Medical Center)
4. Prerenal acute kidney injury (acute renal failure) - causes, symptoms & pathology
(Osmosis from Elsevier)
5. Understand the Signs & Symptoms of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
(Fresenius Kidney Care)
6. Glomerulonephritis, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.
(Medical Centric)


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