Bactericide and antimicrobial susceptibility in equine methicillin-resistant Staphylococci (2023)

Veterinary Microbiology

Volume 166, Issues 1-2,

September 27, 2013

, pp. 299-303

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The purpose of this study is to evaluatefungicideandAntimicrobial SensitivityIsolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci from horses. Extensive genotyping of 14 methicillin-resistant Staphylococci (MRS), including SCCmechanic,Drew,hot spring, PFGE andMLSTtype. Drug susceptibility testing was performed and resistance genes were detected by PCR.Minimum Bactericidal ConcentrationFour biocides [chlorhexidine acetate (CHA), benzalkonium chloride (BAC),Triclosan(TCL) and glutaraldehyde (GLA)] are determined according to the recommendations of document NF EN 1040.WhyandShanghai factoryStudy genes by PCR. Someantimicrobial resistancePatterns and genes detected. When MRS strains were exposed for longer periods of time, lower concentrations of fungicide were required to achieve lethality. TCL has the lowest MBC value. All MBC values ​​are below the recommended concentration for use in veterinary drugs.Hemolytic StreptococcusandS. cohniisubspeciesCarminecarrier plasmidgacAandShanghai factoryorqacBand aqacH-like genes, respectively. Bactericides appear to be a reliable disinfection option for combating MRS as recommended concentrations are much higher thanin vitroMBC。


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) is frequently isolated from the anterior nares of healthy animals, including horses (Moodley and Guardabassi, 2009; Weese and van Duijkeren, 2010). These bacteria can be transmitted from animals to humans, especially to close contact veterinarians and animal keepers (Moodley and Guardabassi, 2009). Although staphylococci are diverse commensal bacteria that inhabit human and animal skin and mucous membranes, some species, such asStaphylococcus aureus, known as an important human pathogen (Weese and van Duijkeren, 2010). on the horse,Staphylococcus aureusand coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are responsible for skin/soft tissue, joint and incision infections (Moodley and Guardabassi, 2009; Weese and van Duijkeren, 2010). These infections are usually treated with systemic and/or topical antibiotics and/or topical antiseptic agents (Bjorland et al., 2003; Schnellmann et al., 2006). In contrast to antibiotics, most biocidal formulations used as antiseptics and disinfectants are commercially available without a veterinary prescription (Bjorland et al., 2003). This has raised concerns about the possible development of 'microbiocide resistance' and cross-resistance to antibiotics (e.g. through mechanisms acting on both microbicides and antibiotics) (SCENIHR, 2010, Ciusa et al., 2012). Different mechanisms for evading fungicide toxicity have been recognized (Cerf et al., 2010). One such mechanism, which can be encoded on bacterial chromosomes or plasmids, is the overexpression of efflux pumps (SCENIHR, 2010). existstaphylococcusSeveral efflux pumps have been identified in the species, but QAC efflux proteins appear to be the most prevalent (Bjorland et al., 2003; Couto et al., 2008; Vali et al., 2008). A recent report identified a novel transferable mechanism for reduced fungicide susceptibility to triclosan byShanghai factorygenes (Ciusa et al., 2012). The Scientific Committee on Emerging and Emerging Health Risks (SCENIHR) recommended the determination of minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) as an appropriate method for comparing lethality between susceptible and resistant strains (SCENIHR, 2010). This determination must involve the use of neutralizers or the removal of biocides, otherwise the lethality of the compounds would be overestimated (SCENIHR, 2010; Cerf et al., 2010).

(Video) MRSA | Methicillin Resistant | Staphylococcus aureus | Antibiotic Resistance | Basic Science Series

In this study, we describe the antimicrobial resistance and fungicide susceptibility of a group of MRS strains isolated from horses and investigate the genetic relatedness of these strains.

partial fragment

bacterial isolate

A study was performed on horses admitted to the Equine Unit of the Academy Veterinary Hospital from March 2008 to October 2010. The aim was to determine the prevalence of nasal colonization with MRSA in horses. 20 horses underwent elective surgery - neutered or as part of a control group, or were admitted for diseases other than infection (30 horses sampled from recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), 18 horses from different respiratory diseases, 13 horses from


Both MRSA isolates were negative for PVL and were classified as ST5-t062-SCCmechanicVI or ST398-t011-SCCmechanicFour (Table 1). SCCmechanicandDrewAll MRS types are listed in Table 1. allsquirrelThe isolates showed indistinguishable SmaI PFGE profiles, although the isolates included in this study were from individual horses, with the exception of strains 8 and 9, which were isolated from the same horse. However, isolates 8 and 9 differed in their tetracycline resistance phenotype and genotype. this observation


In this study, we tested the biocides CHA, BAC, GLA and TCL on a pool of MRS isolates from horses. Two isolates (14%) showed an efflux phenotype (higher MIC values ​​for EtBr compared to wild typeStaphylococcus aureusRN4220) andActivated carbon A/Bpositive. QAC efflux pumps have been previously reported in staphylococci in horses and other farm animals (Bjorland et al., 2003, Bjorland et al., 2005). However, happensgacAorqacBGenes in S. equine have not been identified


This work was funded by FEDER Fund through Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade – COMPETE and National Fund through FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, project PEst-OE/AGR/UI0276/2011 and PhD grant SFRH/BD/68864/2010 from Natacha Couto of the same agency. Work carried out at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut is financially supportedGerman Federal Ministry of Education and Research(BMBF) via the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Grant No.

thank you

The authors thank Felisbela Loução for help with strain isolation, Prof. Pascal Sanders for kindly providing file NF EN 1040, and Lina Cavaco for providingStaphylococcus aureusRN4220 strains and Furi Leonardo and Marco Oggioni strainsStaphylococcus aureusM0091. Finally, we thank Kerstin Meyer at the Friedrich-Loeffler Institute (FLI) in Neustadt-Marien, Germany for excellent laboratory assistance.


  • Europe.Josephwait.

    Tests to determine the concentration of antibiotics and disinfectants used are based on a completely different concept: "resistance" has a different meaning

    int. J. Food Microbiology.


  • M.L.closurewait.

    A novel mechanism of triclosan resistance suggests horizontal gene transfer and demonstrates potential selective pressure for reduced fungicide susceptibility in clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    int. J. Antimicrobial agents. agent


  • A。Mudleywait.

    Clonal Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci in Equine, Personnel, and Environmental Sites of Equine Facilities

    veterinary. microbiology.


  • J.S.orphanwait.

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudointermediates in veterinary medicine

    veterinary. microbiology.


  • Association Française de Normalization, 2006. NF EN 1040 – Quantitative suspension test for the evaluation of...
  • J.Bjoranwait.

    Novel plasmid-carrying geneswhatMediates resistance of horses to quaternary ammonium compoundsStaphylococcus aureus,Mock Staphylococcus, andStaphylococcus intermedia

    Antibacterial agents. pharmacist.


  • J.Bjoranwait.

    Widespread distribution of disinfectant resistance genes in Norwegian bovine and goat-derived staphylococci

    J. Clinical. microbiology.


  • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Association

    Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Testing Performance Standards for Bacterial Isolates from Animals—Third Edition: Approved Standard M31-A3


    (Video) Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

  • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Association

    Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Seventeenth Information Supplement. CLSI file M100-S21


Additional references are provided in the full-text version of this article.

Quoted by (12)

  • Qac gene and fungicide resistance in methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudointermediates for clinical veterinary use

    2018, Veterinary Microbiology

    Citation excerpt:

    Several human medical studies have examined qac genes in MRSA and demonstrated that their presence is associated with increased microbicide resistance in vitro (Smith et al., 2008; Otter et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2015) , but similar studies are lacking in veterinary medicine. The Qac gene has been found in a small number of methicillin-susceptible pseudointermediate streptococci (MSSP) (Couto et al., 2013a) and in a series of staphylococci from horses (Bjorland et al., 2003; Sidhu et al., 2007 ); Couto et al., 2013b), but has not been reported in methicillin-resistant pseudointermediate streptococcus (MRSP). Given the increasing prevalence of MRSP in veterinary medicine (Moodley et al., 2014) and its growing profile as a potential zoonotic pathogen (Stegmann et al., 2010), the question of the possible presence of the qac gene in MRSP needs to be addressed. question.

    goGenes associated with increased tolerance to quaternary ammonium compounds and other cationic fungicides such as chlorhexidine. This study aimed to determine whetherWhyGenes and increased fungicide resistance are present in 125 clinical methicillin-resistant and susceptible veterinary staphylococci. A total of 125 methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus(MRSA) and methicillin resistant and sensitivePseudostaphylococcus intermedia(MRSP and MSSP) Whole-genome sequencing, multilocus sequence typing andWhygenetic screening. Possession of two MRSA isolates (12%)Activated carbon A/BGene; both isolates were ST8 from horses.QacJ, qacGandsmrGenes were identified in 28/90 (31%) MRSP and 1/18 (6%) MSSP isolates. ST71 MRSP was significantly more likely to harborWhygene than other MRSP clones (p < 0.05). A random subset of 31 isolates were tested for minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against F10SCTM value(benzalkonium chloride and biguanides) and HexaconTM value(chlorhexidine gluconate), with and without bovine serum albumin (BSA) asin vitroAlternative to organic pollution.goGenes were not associated with increased phenotypic fungicide tolerance, but fungicide efficacy was significantly affected by the presence of BSA. In the absence of BSA, all MBC values ​​were well below the recommended concentration for use. When BSA is present, regardless ofWhyGene present, 50% of MRSA and 43% of MRSP have F10SCTM valueMBC is higher than the recommended concentration for general disinfection.gogenes did not increasein vitroFungicide resistance of veterinary staphylococci. Organic contamination must be minimized to ensure fungicide efficacy against MRSA and MRSP.

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Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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What is methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses? ›

Methicillin-resistant Staph aureus infections in the horse have manifested as wound and surgical site infections, cellulitis (soft tissue infections, typically of the limb), catheter-site infections, pneumonia, septic arthritis, and skin infections, among others.

How do you treat MRSA in horses? ›

Currently, there is typically at least one reasonable antimicrobial option for treating MRSA infection in horses. Chloramphenicol is commonly used because of its efficacy, cost, oral route of administration, and safety.

Can horses get staph infections? ›

In horses presenting with papules, pustules, crusts, scaling, and alopecia, a superficial staphylococcal skin infection must be suspected (e.g., bacterial folliculitis, impetigo, mucocutaneous pyoderma, and pastern folliculitis) (Figure 1).

Can you catch MRSA from a horse? ›

The nasal passage is the most common site to find MRSA in horses. MRSA has been found to affect horses with skin infections, wounds, surgical or catheter sites, septic arthritis, and pneumonia. The bacteria can be spread from humans to horses and also from horses to humans.

What is used to treat methicillin-resistant staphylococci? ›

Vancomycin or daptomycin are the agents of choice for treatment of invasive MRSA infections [1]. Alternative agents that may be used for second-line or salvage therapy include telavancin, ceftaroline, and linezolid.

What is the most common bacterial infection in horses? ›

Salmonella is one of the most common bacterial diseases of adult horses. Infection can occur via contamination of the environment, feed or water, or by contact with animals actively shedding the bacteria, Salmonella enterica. Infected animals also can transmit the disease to humans.

What triggers staph infection? ›

Staph infections are caused by staphylococcus bacteria. These germs can live on contaminated implanted medical devices and improperly cleaned needles, such as those used for tattoos and injecting drugs. If an area of your skin is broken, skin-to-skin contact or touching contaminated objects may also lead to infection.

What antibiotic is used for horse skin infection? ›

Some of the more common oral antibiotics in horses include trimethoprim sulfa, metronidazole, enrofloxacin, and chloramphenicol. Trimethoprim sulfa (SMZ, TMS, sulfa tabs) is an antibiotic which has a broad spectrum of activity against a variety of bacteria.

What antibacterial kills MRSA? ›

Currently, there are seven common antibiotics used against MRSA, which are: vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (TMP-SMZ), quinupristin-dalfopristin, clindamycin and tigecycline.

What disinfectant kills MRSA? ›

To kill MRSA on surfaces, use a disinfectant such as Lysol or a solution of bleach. Use enough solution to completely wet the surface and allow it to air dry. This will sufficiently reduce the amount of germs.

What are the symptoms of Staph infection in horses? ›

Once the infectious agent invades your horse, it can cause skin problems ranging from mild to severe itching, swelling and inflammation, and growths and lesions. While normally the signs are mild, in severe cases, lameness and an increased heart rate have been seen.

Can you pass MRSA to pets? ›

Companion animals can get MRSA from humans.

It's important to take precautions to protect your pet from MRSA, especially if you work in a health care environment, or if someone in your home has MRSA. Transmission to animals can occur from kissing, licking, bathing or any direct contact with an infected person.

Is MRSA spread by saliva? ›

MRSA can spread to the mouth and gums through: Blood contact. Saliva contact. Contact with contaminated instruments.

Can you get MRSA from farm animals? ›

Furthermore, several investigations have shown that persons in contact with livestock may be at increased risk of becoming colonized with LA-MRSA.

Why is methicillin resistant Staphylococcus difficult to treat? ›

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Staph bacteria are usually harmless, but they can cause serious infections that can lead to sepsis or death. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a cause of staph infection that is difficult to treat because of resistance to some antibiotics.

What is the best antibiotic treatment for methicillin resistant staph aureus MRSA? ›

Intravenous vancomycin is the drug of choice for most MRSA infections seen in hospitalized patients. It can be used both as empiric and definitive therapy as most MRSA infections are susceptible to vancomycin. There are sporadic cases of vancomycin-resistant MRSA.

What is the best way to reduce MRSA? ›

You can take these steps to reduce your risk of MRSA infection:
  1. Maintain good hand and body hygiene. ...
  2. Keep cuts, scrapes, and wounds clean and covered until healed.
  3. Avoid sharing personal items such as towels and razors.
  4. Get care early if you think you might have an infection.

How do you get rid of bacterial infection in horses? ›

Treatment includes antibiotics and sometimes drugs to reduce inflammation (non-steroidal). Salmonella are a group of bacteria that can cause diarrhea in horses. Younger horses are more at risk of developing infections. More severe cases of salmonella infection can lead to inflammation of the intestines or even death.

What disease kills the most horses? ›

Eastern (EEE) is the most deadly, killing 75-100% of infected horses. Western (WEE) is more common and somewhat less virulent. Both EEE and WEE can occur throughout the U.S., and horses should be vaccinated for both.

How long does it take a horse to get over a bacterial infection? ›

It may take a week to several weeks for the abscess to heal depending on the infection. Routine hoof care and keeping your horse's area clean can prevent abscesses.

What is the strongest antibiotic for staph infection? ›

For serious staph infections, vancomycin may be required. This is because so many strains of staph bacteria have become resistant to other traditional antibiotics. This means other antibiotics can no longer kill the staph bacteria.

What are the first signs of MRSA? ›

MRSA usually appear as a bump or infected area that is red, swollen, painful, warm to the touch, or full of pus. If you or someone in your family experiences these signs and symptoms, cover the area with a bandage and contact your healthcare professional.

Which hygiene step would best help prevent a staph infection? ›

Wash Hands Thoroughly

In addition to proper wound dressing, careful hand washing can help prevent staph from spreading. Doctors recommend washing your hands with soap and water or using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, particularly after touching infected areas.

What is the best antibiotic for wound healing in horses? ›

Penicillin, or trimethoprim-sulfonamide, or a combination of both, are often used empirically to treat acute or superficial wound infections while awaiting results of culture and sensitivity.

What is the best disinfectant for horse wounds? ›

A povidone-iodine solution is ideal for wound cleaning. Solutions are a bit runny, but using a cotton gauze square or cotton ball can help you get the solution where needed.

What is a natural antibiotic for horse wounds? ›

Honey. This substance is both hypertonic and antimicrobial. It can help heal burns, for instance, faster and with fewer adverse effects than other dressings, said Hendrickson. Researchers have performed a variety of studies confirming the efficacy of honeys such as manuka honey.

What causes methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus? ›

MRSA is usually spread in the community by contact with infected people or things that are carrying the bacteria. This includes through contact with a contaminated wound or by sharing personal items, such as towels or razors, that have touched infected skin.

What are the symptoms of staph infection in horses? ›

Once the infectious agent invades your horse, it can cause skin problems ranging from mild to severe itching, swelling and inflammation, and growths and lesions. While normally the signs are mild, in severe cases, lameness and an increased heart rate have been seen.

Is methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus serious? ›

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Staph bacteria are usually harmless, but they can cause serious infections that can lead to sepsis or death. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a cause of staph infection that is difficult to treat because of resistance to some antibiotics.

Is a methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection serious? ›

When MSSA is found in the blood cultures, then a person is diagnosed with an MSSA bacteraemia. Bloodstream infections are serious and can be life-threatening.


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